Access and Delivery of Essential Medicines


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Transforming Access and Delivery of Essential Medicines: Lessons from the Riders for Health Program

Lesley Sept-GSB Global Supply Chain Management
Mar 2011

For ADEM's last class of the quarter, we will be exploring the role that supply chains play in drug delivery and access. The role of responsible supply chain management is critical, and it is a growing field for environmental and social activism. Lesley Sept is the Associate Director of Stanford's Global Supply Chain Management Program, and she has done extensive work with socially and environmentally responsible supply chain initiatives. The program focuses on proving how responsible supply chain and business implications of SER initiatives can be economically valuable. The SER Program differs from other sustainability initiatives in that its attention is focused on assessing the impact SER initiatives have on the supply chain network (product development, sourcing, manufacturing, logistics, end-of-life). This week, Sept will be exploring the care and model provided by Riders for Health, a UK-based non-profit working to eliminate transport as an obstacle to drug delivery.

Riders for Health

In 1986, with the help of racing legend Randy Mamola, Andrea and Barry Colemanbegan looking into the role transport played in keeping children from being immunised in rural Africa. Motorcycles are well-suited for harsh African landscape, where roads are often busted, rutted or simply non-existent. With the help of Linda Paterson, Save the Children, the local governments and money raised at bike rallies in England, they set-up pilot programs in Uganda and Gambia, and helped acquire motorcycles and train riders and technicians. They built a fleet of 47 bikes in Lesotho that delivered health-care services from 1991 to 1996 without a breakdown. At the end of that period, Riders for Health became an independent organisation and had expanded into Ghana, Zimbabwe and Nigeria. They have since diversified its fleet to include refrigerated trucks, minivans and ambulances and introduced a motorcycle ambulance fitted with asidecar called the Uhuru that can be used as a mini-ambulance and double as a water pump when the bike is stationary.

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IPIRA and UC Berkeley's Approach to Neglected Disease

Dr. Carol Mimua- IPIRA
Mar 2011

University of California, Berkeley has taken a leading stance in freeing up intellectual property for socially-motivated reasons through the office for Intellectual Property and Industry Research Alliances (IPIRA). One huge success for them has been Amyris, a biotechnology firm focused on developing treatments for neglected diseases, and which now features artemisinin, one of the most effective anti-malarial treatments on the market. However, it is not just malaria; IPIRA is taking the lead in IP liberalization for neglected disease, including dengue fever, hunger, and water purification.

Dr. Mimura is the Assistant Vice Chancellor for Intellectual Property & Industry Research Alliances (IPIRA) at the University of California, Berkeley. IPIRA is the portal to Berkeley for industry access to Berkeley’s preeminent faculty and research capabilities. ??She is a member of the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation of the National Academies of Sciences Institute of Medicine, has served on the board of directors of the Children’s Hospital Research Institute in Oakland, CA and as a board member (the Chancellor’s alternate) of BayBio, the regional voice of biotechnology in Northern California. She was a former Executive Director of U.C. Berkeley’s Office of Technology Licensing.??Prior to her positions at U.C. Berkeley, Carol was an analyst at Technology Forecasters, a consultant to Cor Therapeutics and Genomyx, and wrote for the Genetic Engineering News. ??She holds a B.S. degree from Yale University in Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry and Ph.D. in Biology (biochemistry and microbiology concentration) from Boston University. She was an NIH-sponsored postdoctoral fellow and research scientist at U.C. Berkeley in Biochemistry and in Chemical Biodynamics. (from

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Healthcare Delivery in Resource-Poor Settings:
A Practical Approach

Dr. Charles Van der Horst - UNC Chapel Hill Global Health and Infectious Disease
Feb 2011

Dr. Van der Horst brings years of field experience to ADEM this Tuesday. With a clinical research background in HIV/AIDS, Dr. Van der Horst has spent the bulk of his time since 2001 working on improvement of care and patient outcomes in Malawi and South Africa.

Attached, please find a short, editorial piece Van der Horst wrote for AIDS last year exploring what must be done to fight TB/HIV in resource-poor settings.

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Cafta And Intellectual Property In Guatemala:
Have Stronger IP Laws Reduced Access To Medicines?

Josh Rolnick and the Access and Delivery of Essential Medicines
Feb 2011

Josh is in his final year at Stanford Medical School, with a focus in Health Services and Policy Research. Having completed a JD at Yale, Josh's work at Stanford has included in-depth studies of IP Protections for Pharmaceuticals in Developing Countries, and particularly in Guatemala. Josh will be presenting his work and findings this week at ADEM.

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HIV/AIDS medication in the developing world--
pricing, partnership, and access

Clifford Samuel (Gilead Sciences)
Feb 2011

HIV/AIDS and medication is a key focus of many institutions' efforts to improve healthcare access in the developing world. Gilead Sciences is no exception, and with a unique mix of branded distribution and generic partnerships, Gilead has made impressive strides in utilizing tiered pricing, manufacturing partnerships and an extensive network of distributors and sub-distributors to ensure expanded access to their HIV/AIDS treatments at a fraction of original price. Mr. Clifford Samuel has led this effort from his background in pharmaceuticals, and with Gilead and is now Vice President of the International Access Operations. Come hear him speak and push back with questions on these topics and on Gilead's other efforts this week.

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Stanford, Patents, and Neglected Disease

Kathy Ku (Stanford Office of Technology and Licensing)
Jan 2011

Some of the most important medical discoveries are made at universities like Stanford, but few of them every reach the diseases or populations most in need. Kathy Ku is the director of the Office of Technology Licensing at Stanford, which plays a key role in bringing Stanford inventions to market, and has brought in over 120 million in revenue to the university in the past two years alone. She will be speaking on the role research institutions can play in addressing neglected disease.

Kathy Ku is Director of the Office of Technology Licensing (OTL) at Stanford University. OTL is responsible for the licensing of various state-of-the-art university technologies and industry sponsored research agreements and collaborations. In the past forty years, the OTL has raised more than 1billion in revenue for the university, with over 120 million in the last two years alone. From 1994-98, in addition to her OTL responsibilities, Ku was responsible for Stanford's Sponsored Projects Office, which handled $500M in research contracts and grants. Ku was Vice President, Business Development at Protein Design Labs, Inc. in Mountain View, California from 1990-1991. Prior to PDL, Ku spent 12 years at Stanford in various positions, was a researcher at Monsanto and Sigma Chemical, administered a dialysis clinical trial at University of California and taught chemistry and basic engineering courses.
Ku has a B.S. Chemical Engineering (Cornell University), an M.S. in Chem. Eng. (Washington University) and is a registered patent agent.

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Translational Studies of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Africa

Philip Rosenthal (UCSF)
Mar 2010

Dr. Rosenthal is a Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. He is a member of the Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, the Sandler Center for Basic Research in Parasitic Diseases, and the Global Health Sciences Program at UCSF. He also directs a Fogarty International Center UCSF/Makerere University Training Grant for the training of African clinician scientists in malaria research. Dr. Rosenthal received a B.S. in Biochemistry from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and an M.D. from New York University. He then trained in Medicine at the University of Michigan and in Infectious Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. He also served as a consultant for the World Health Organization. Dr. Rosenthal's research interests focus on malaria, including basic science, clinical, and translational research. Basic science studies include the characterization of a family of parasite cysteine proteases that includes promising targets for new antimalarial drugs. In collaboration with chemistry collaborators, his group is now pursuing drug discovery directed against cysteine proteases. Another project is exploring antibiotics as antimalarial drugs. Dr. Rosenthal's group also evaluates the clinical and molecular epidemiology of malaria, with studies based in Uganda. These studies include clinical trials of new antimalarial agents and drug combinations, evaluations of the roles of parasite and host genetic polymorphisms in drug resistance, considerations of the importance of the complexity of malaria infections, and studies of molecular mechanisms of drug resistance. Dr. Rosenthal is on the editorial boards of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He has received an NIH Physician Scientist Award and was an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association. He receives research funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Medicines for Malaria Venture.

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Fair Trade in Biotechnology and the Ownership of Biomedical Knowledge

Dr. Nicole Hassoun and Dr. Robert Shafer 
Feb 2010

Most of the world’s health problems afflict poor countries and their poorest inhabitants. One reason for this is that the poor cannot access many of the existing drugs and technologies they need. Another is that little of the research and development on new drugs and technologies benefits the poor. Dr. Hassoun's talk will consider a new way of restructuring the incentives pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies face to enable them to target their technologies to the poor, namely, promoting Fair Trade and Investment in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies via a Fair Trade Licensing Campaign.

Dr. Hassoun is is an assistant professor in philosophy at Carnegie Mellon University. She is affiliated with Carnegie Mellon’s Program on International Relations and the Center for Bioethics and Health Law at the University of Pittsburgh. Hassoun writes primarily in political philosophy and ethics and focuses, in particular, on global economic and environmental justice. Her articles appear in journals such as the American Philosophical Quarterly, Public Affairs Quarterly, Environmental Ethics, The American Journal of Bioethics, Journal of Moral Philosophy, and Utilitas.

Dr. Shafer will discuss one of the most controversial areas confronting biomedical researchers and health care practitioners - the ownership of biomedical knowledge. Proponents of broad definitions of intellectual property such as the American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA) argue that ownership of biomedical knowledge is essential motivation for continued discovery and innovation. In contrast, biomedical organizations such as the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and all professional medical organizations argue that ownership of biomedical knowledge stifles innovation because most biomedical advances are built upon previous discoveries and that restricted dissemination of clinical knowledge is antithetical to medical practice. The actions of University licensing offices are often more aligned with the proclamations of the AIPLA than of the NAS and professional medical organizations.

Dr. Shafer is Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and by Courtesy of Pathology. 

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Stanford Initiatives to Innovate for the Developing World

Kathy Ku (Head of Stanford Office of Technology Licensing), 
Stanford Biodesign Program, SPARK Drug Discovery Program, 
& the Design School's "Entrepreneurial Design for Extreme Affordability"
Jan 2010
About Kathy Ku: 
Katharine Ku is Director of the Office of Technology Licensing (OTL) at Stanford University. OTL is responsible for the licensing of various state-of-the-art university technologies and industry sponsored research agreements, material transfer agreements and collaborations.

In FY2009, Stanford received $65.05M in gross royalty revenue from over 500 technologies, with royalties ranging from $3 to $37.98M. From 1994-98, in addition to her OTL responsibilities, Ku was responsible for Stanford’s pre-award Sponsored Projects Office. Ku was Vice President, Business Development at Protein Design Labs, Inc. in Mountain View, California from 1990-1991. Prior to PDL, Ku spent 12 years at Stanford in various positions, worked at Monsanto and Sigma Chemical as a research scientist, administered a dialysis clinical trial at University of California, and taught chemistry and basic engineering courses.

Ku has been active in the Licensing Executive Society (LES), serving as Vice President, Western Region and Trustee of LES and various committee chairs. She also has served as President of the Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) from 1988- 90. She received the AUTM 2001 Bayh-Dole Award for her efforts in university licensing. In 1999, Stanford OTL received the Licensing Executives Society Achievement Award for licensing, the Society’s most prestigious award. She has a B.S. Chemical Engineering (Cornell University), an M.S. in Chemical Engineering (Washington University in St. Louis) and is a registered patent agent.

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Innovation in Global Health:
Are Markets Broken or Simply Telling the Truth

Dr. Leighton Read; Co-founder of Affymax, Aviron, and Amgen, General Partner of Allow Ventures, Chairman of Seriosity, Inc.
Jan 2010
Dr. Leighton Read is a successful entrepreneur, CEO, and high-tech investor. Some of the companies he has founded or co-founded include Affymax NV acquired by Glaxo; Aviron, the biotechnology company acquired by MedImmune that developed FluMist(tm); and Avidia, acquired by Amgen. He is a general partner in four funds at Alloy Ventures in Palo Alto, California. He has a long-standing interest in the psychological principles that underlie successful electronic games and is Chairman of Seriosity, Inc. ( 

Dr. Read received a BS from Rice University in psychology and biology, an MD from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and internal medicine training at Duke and the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital,where he held appointments at the Harvard Medical School and School of Public Health. His publications cover decision theory in medicine, cost-effectiveness analysis, and medical innovation policy. He produced a successful interactive computer game in 1984 to promote healthy lifestyles based on text-based adventure games and behavior modification. 

He is a frequent public speaker and serves as a director of six young companies in the fields of biotechnology, nanotechnology, cleantech, and software and serves as a trustee or director of BeneTech, BioVentures for Global Health, The UC Berkeley Foundation and School of Public Health Council and the Santa Fe Institute. His awards include several as coinventor of technology underlying the Affymetrix GeneChip(tm) and Ernst & Young's California Life Science Entrepreneur of the Year.
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Synthetic Biology in Pursuit of Low-Cost, Effective, Anti-Malarial Drugs

Dr. Jay Keasling; professor in the Department of Chemical Enginnering and Bioengineering at Berkeley, Director, Physical Biosciences Division, LBL and Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center, CEO of the Joint Bioenergy Institute
Jan 2010
Dr. Keasling talks about his development of synthetic artemisinin, a key anti-malarial compound, reducing the cost of a key anti-malarial drug to a matter of cents.

Dr. Keasling is a professor in the Department of Chemical Enginnering and Bioengineering at Berkeley, Director of the Physical Biosciences Division, LBL, and the Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center, and CEO of the Joint Bioenergy Institute. For more information on his research: 
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Public Private Partnerships and Global Access Contracting for Neglected Tropical Diseases

Dr. Carol Mimura; former Director, Office of Tech. Licensing, UC Berkeley
Jan 2010
Carol Mimura is the Assistant Vice Chancellor for Intellectual Property & Industry Research Alliances (IPIRA) at the University of California, Berkeley. She is a member of the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation of the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, has served on the board of directors of the Children’s Hospital Research Institute in Oakland, CA and of BayBio, the regional voice of biotechnology in Northern California. She was a former Executive Director of U.C. Berkeley’s Office of Technology Licensing.
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The Challenges of Developing New Drugs for Neglected Tropical Diseases

Dr. Jim McKerrow; Sandler Institute, Cal
Jan 2010
The research interests of my group fall into three broad areas. The first is analysis of structure-function relationships in proteolytic enzymes, focusing principally on cysteine and serine proteases. We began with identification and cloning of a spectrum of related proteases from primitive eukaryotes (mostly parasites), and subsequent structural analysis of these proteases bound to small molecule inhibitors. Our second major interest is identification or design of small molecule inhibitors of cysteine proteases that are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases (especially those caused by tropical parasites). In this latter project, we collaborate with a consortium of laboratories within and outside UCSF in a multidisciplinary approach that includes structural analysis of enzyme targets and synthesis of small molecule inhibitors utilizing a variety of synthetic approaches or computer-based drug design. These inhibitors can be used to study the biologic function of the target proteases by "chemical knockout" and several are leads for new chemotherapy. Lastly, we also have an interest in the host response to parasites focusing specifically on schistosomiasis.We are analyzing the cellular immunology of the granulomatous response to parasite eggs as well as the parasite's exploitation of that response for transmission to a new host.
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Addressing the Challenges of HIV/AIDS and TB in the Developing World

Nick Hellman, MD, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Feb 2007
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A New Era of Hope for the World's Most Neglected Diseases

Gavin Yamey, MD MRCP, Senior Editor PLoS Medicine, Consulting Editor PLoS Neglected Diseases
Oct 2007

Gavin Yamey kicks off another year of ADEM by defining what Neglected Tropical Diseases are and highlights their impact on global health.

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Bill Gates' Other Business:Designing Shrewd Incentives for Neglected Disease Research

Stephen Maurer, JD; Director, Goldman School Project on Information Technology and Homeland Security, UC Berkeley
Oct 2007
Stephen Maurer's research interests include designing better institutions and incentives for neglected disease research, academic/industry relations, patent law, antitrust issues, open source biology, database policy and homeland security. Maurer has practiced high technology and intellectual property litigation at leading law firms in Arizona and California. He is currently Director of the Goldman School Project on Information Technology and Homeland Security (ITHS), which serves as a focal point for the School's science, innovation, and technology initiatives.
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Can We Control the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic?

Nick Hellman, MD; Program Leader, HIV/AIDS Program, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Oct 2007

Dr. Hellmann is the Program Leader of the HIV/AIDS Program at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. In this capacity, he is responsible for strategy, research, program and policies related to HIV/AIDS for the Foundation.

Dr. Hellmann received his M.D. degree from the University of Kentucky in 1982, and completed his Internal Medicine Residency and Infectious Diseases Fellowship training at UCSF. After completion of his fellowship training in 1988, Dr. Hellmann was an Assistant Professor in the Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases Division at UCSF and was later an Infectious Diseases Consultant in a private medical practice. While on the Department of Medicine Faculty at UCSF, Dr Hellmann lived and worked in Uganda, East Africa from 1989-1991 where he conducted research to identify HIV risk factors and develop effective intervention strategies to reduce heterosexual HIV transmission. Prior to joining the Foundation, Dr. Hellmann worked in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector for 12 years on the development of antimicrobial drugs and molecular diagnostic technologies for many infectious diseases and other health conditions. Most recently he held positions as the Chief Medical Officer at Roche Molecular Systems (Pleasanton, CA), the global leader in the development of nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests for individualized clinical management of human diseases, and Vice President of Clinical Research at ViroLogic, a leading company in the development of therapy guidance technologies related to evaluation and management of drug resistance in serious viral infections, such as HIV and hepatitis. Prior to these roles, Dr. Hellmann held positions at Gilead Sciences, Genentech, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, where he directed clinical research activities related to the development of novel antiviral and antimicrobial drugs, especially drugs for treatment of HIV infection.

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Drug access for developing nations: finding a politically plausible approach

Considerations in University Technology Transfer and Drug Access for Developing Nations

Kirsten Leute, MBA; Senior Licensing Associate, Office of Technology Licensing, Stanford University
John Barton, JD; Stanford Law School

Oct 2007

Kirsten Leute received a B.A. in Biological Sciences from Wellesley College and an M.B.A. from Santa Clara University. She previously worked as an R&D Chemist and QC Analyst at Boehringer-Mannheim Diagnostics and as a Technology Manager at Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum. Her responsibilities with the Office of Technology Licensing include biotechnology and physical sciences. She has written about the licensing and patenting of university-based biotechnology discoveries.

John Barton received a J.D. from Stanford Law School and has devoted his academic career to the examination of questions at the intersection of science and the law. A fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, an honor rarely bestowed upon a law professor, Professor Barton has focused his scholarship on international law concerns ranging from national defense to issues surrounding the distribution of intellectual property across the developed and undeveloped world. His current work involves the study of the transfer of technologies, including vaccines and steel, between scientifically sophisticated and developing nations, and the development of a political theory of international organization and globalization. Professor Barton has chaired or been a member of more than a dozen academic and international advisory commissions, most recently heading up the International Commission on Intellectual Property Rights. Before joining the Stanford Law School faculty in 1969, Professor Barton was an engineer with Sylvania Electronic Defense Laboratories.

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Breaking down barriers... building solutions

Chris Earl, PhD; President and CEO, BIO Ventures for Global Health
Nov 2007
BIO Ventures for Global Health:
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Across the Spectrum: From Molecular Virology and Pathogenesis to Clinical and Epidemiological Studies of Dengue

Eva Harris, PhD, associate professor of infectious diseases at UC Berkeley and president of the Sustainable Sciences Institute
Dec 2007

Eva Harris is Associate Professor of Infectious Diseases, Director of the Center for Global Public Health, and Associate Dean for Research in the School of Public Health at UC Berkeley. Dr. Harris graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University in Biochemical Sciences before earning her Ph.D. in molecular and cell biology in the laboratory of Dr. Jeremy Thorner at UC Berkeley in 1993. She conducted her post-doctoral work at UCSF and joined the faculty at UC Berkeley in 1998. Dr. Harris has received many awards in recognition of her superb laboratory and public health skills including a prestigious MacArthur Fellowship (aka "Genius Award") from the MacArthur Foundation in 1997. Using the funds from the Genius Award, Dr. Harris founded the Sustainable Sciences Institute (SSI), a non-profit organization based in San Francisco. SSI strives to develop scientific research capacity in countries with pressing public health problems by helping scientists in these areas gain access to the resources needed to address local problems related to infectious diseases.

Dr. Harris focuses her efforts on combating diseases that primarily afflict people in developing nations. For example, she hopes that her research on the molecular biology of the dengue virus will eventually lead to a vaccine or antiviral therapies, while her work in dengue-endemic countries like Nicaragua will lead to better control of the mosquito that transmits dengue. In 1998, Harris published the book, "A Low Cost Approach to PCR: Appropriate Transfer of Biomolecular Techniques," which strips an expensive DNA analysis technique down to its principles so that it becomes practical and inexpensive for use by people in developing nations.

The following websites may be of interest:
Bio page at Berkeley:
Sustainable Sciences Institute:

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Is There Any Hope for Tackling the World’s Most Neglected Diseases?

Ahvie Herskowitz, MD; Senior Vice President, Chief Medical Officer and Co-Founder, Institute for OneWorld Health
Dec 2007

iOWH is currently developing medicines for visceral leishmaniasis, diarrheal diseases, malaria and Chagas disease. Last year iOWH gained FDA approval for paromomycin, an off patent antibiotic they have been developing as a new cure for visceral leishmaniasis. From the iOWH website: "iOWH challenges the assumption that pharmaceutical research and development is too expensive to create the new medicines that the developing world desperately needs. By partnering and collaborating with industry and researchers, by securing donated intellectual property, and by utilizing the scientific and manufacturing capacity of the developing world, OneWorld Health can deliver affordable, effective and appropriate new medicines where they are needed most.

Dr Herskowitz provides senior executive leadership to the Institute for OneWorld Health. He has extensive experience performing large-scale multinational phase II and III clinical trials. Prior to co-founding iOWH Ahvie directed all multinational clinical trials at a cardiovascular research institute, including all epidemiologic and outcome studies and registries. Dr. Herskowitz has been trained in the fields of cardiology, immunology and pathology. A former Associate Professor of Medicine, Immunology and Molecular Microbiology at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Herskowitz is a Clinical Professor in the Department of Medicine at University of California, San Francisco. He received his MD from Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

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Introductory Talk:

Is There Any Hope for Tackling the World’s Most Neglected Diseases?

Gavin Yamey, MD MRCP, Senior Editor PLoS Medicine
Patrick Brown, MD PhD, Co-Founder PLoS
Feb 2006
Gavin Yamey defines what Neglected Tropical Disease are and highlights their impact on global health. He explains why these diseases are neglected and what we can do about it. Finally, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases is revealed.
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Drugs for the Developing World

Stephen Maurer, JD, Acting Director of the Goldman School Project on Information Technology and Homeland Security; University of California, Berkeley
Feb 2006
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Finding Cures for Tropical Disease: Open Sources and the Tropical Disease Initiative

Marc A. Marti-Renom, PhD
Feb 2006
Marc Marti-Renom discusses approaches to funding research and treatments for tropical diseases.  While these diseases receive less publicity than the Big 3 ( HIV, Malaria, TB - not crude touch, pain, and temperature), neglected tropical diseases effect the poor just as much but have treatment and prevention strategies that can be delivered for less than $1/person/year.
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Vaccine production in developing nations; lessons from history

John H. Barton, JD, Emeritus Co-director, Stanford Program in Law, Science & Technology
Mar 2006
John Barton has been instrumental in working with the NIH on reform efforts involving the structure of the pharmaceutical industry, the transfer of vaccine technology to the developing world, and international decision-making in the medical arena. Dr. Barton has recently published an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association on the pharmaceutical development process, and is co-author of the product development priorities chapter in the forthcoming book Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. He has participated extensively in discussions regarding drug access for developing nations. He is also interested in the marketing structure of the pharmaceutical industry and the impact of vaccine regulation on the structure of the international vaccine industry.
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